Notes on the International Rules of Roller Derby
Implementation and Scope
The date of implementation of these rules for international competition is 1 January
2019. National Federations have discretion to decide the date of implementation at
In addition to the Technical Rules of Roller Derby, the International Rules of Roller
Derby comprise a set of standard procedures that are binding for all sports bodies and
agents – International organizations, National Federations and affiliated Clubs –
attached to the organic and functional structure of World Skate and WADA – World Anti-
The International Rules of Roller Derby are complemented by the Technical Rules of
Roller Derby, which contain additional binding precepts and procedures, including:
• Code of Conduct
• Tournament Regulations
• Officiating Procedures
• Eligibility and National Status of Players
• Safety Protocols
• Anti-Doping Policies
Responsibility and Liability
Participants must be aware of the International Rules of Roller Derby and of other
information in this publication. They are expected to perform according to the Rules.
Emphasis is placed on safety. Everyone involved in the game must act with
consideration for the safety of others. Relevant national legislation must be observed.
Players must ensure that their equipment does not constitute a danger to themselves or
to others by virtue of its quality, materials or design.
World Skate and its approved Officials do not accept responsibility for any defects or
non-compliance of equipment and are not liable for any consequences resulting from
their use. Any verification of facilities or equipment conducted before a game is limited
to ensuring an overall appearance of compliance and sporting requirements.
On behalf of World Skate, the World Skate Roller Derby Technical Commission publishes
the International Rules of Roller Derby in multiple languages. If there is any divergence
in the wording, the English text is authoritative.
Provided the principles of these rules are maintained, the International Rules of Roller
Derby may be modified in their application for games for players of under 18 years of
age or games played on a banked track. Modifications are only allowed with the consent
of the World Skate Roller Derby Technical Commission.
RULE ONE – TRACK
Article 1 – Surface
The track surface must be clean, smooth and suitable for skating and for safely practicing the sport of roller derby. The track surface must be at least 32.92 m (108 ft) long by 22.86 m (75 ft) wide, which includes a 3.05 m (10 ft) safety area around the track. If there is a wall or solid barrier preventing the spectators from the track, the safety area may be reduced to a minimum of 1.52 m (5 ft), and thus the minimum track surface must be 29.87 m (98 ft) long by 19.81 m (65 ft) wide.
Article 2 – Markings
No markings other than those described in this document shall be made on the track surface. If the surface is marked with lines from other sports which cannot easily be removed, they shall be a distinctive color. Promotional logos on the surface of the track shall not interfere with any official markings provided for the proper playing of the game.
Lines and boundaries shall be painted or marked using tape, rope, chalk or any other method as long as they follow the specifications established in this document. All markings shall be made in a color which significantly contrasts with the color of the track surface.
Article 3 – Boundaries
The internal boundary shall be composed of two parallel straight lines 10.668 m (35 ft) long and 7.62 m (25 ft) apart connected to each other on both sides by a semi-circle with a radius of 3.81 m (12.5 ft). The external boundary shall be composed of two parallel straight lines 10.668 m (35 ft) long and 16.1544 m (53 ft) apart connected to each other on both sides by a semi-circle with a radius of 8.0772 m (26.5 ft). The center of each external semi-circle shall be offset from the center of the internal semi-circle by 30.48 cm (1 ft) to the left facing the outside of the track. The offset of the external semi-circles creates a short side measuring 3.9624 m (13 ft) and a long side measuring 4.572 m (15 ft) on each half of the track.
The track boundaries shall be marked in a way that makes them safe and highly visible to Players and Officials. The boundaries may be raised, but shall be less than 1.27 cm (0.5 in) in height. The boundary width shall be at least 2.54 cm (1 in) and no more than 7.62 cm (3 in). The boundaries shall be consistent in height and width along the entire track.
Article 4 – Lines
The pivot area, the blocker area and the jammer line shall be clearly marked on the track by lines that shall go across the entire width of the track. These lines shall be at least 2.54 cm (1 in) and no more than 7.62 cm (3 in) wide. The pivot area shall be delimited by:
- The pivot line: a straight line from the intersection of the external semi-circle and the external line to the intersection of the internal semi-circle and the internal line on either one of the short sides of the track, and
- The blocker line: a straight line parallel to the pivot line and located 1.2192 m (4 ft) away from the pivot line, measured in the clockwise direction.
The blocker area shall be delimited by the blocker line and by a straight line parallel to the pivot line and located 3.048 m (10 ft) from the pivot line, measured in clockwise direction.
The jammer line shall be a straight line parallel to the pivot line and located 6.096 m (20 ft) from the pivot line, measured in the clockwise direction.
The pivot line is considered part of the pivot area. The blocker line is considered part of the blocker area.
Additional track lines may be drawn every 3.048 m (10 ft) along the track to serve as visual aids. The track lines, if present, must be at least 1.27 cm (0.5 in) wide and are not required to go across the entire width of the track but must be at least 30.48 cm (1 ft) in length.
Article 5 – Safety Area
There shall be 3.048 m (10 ft) of clearance around the track for safety purposes. If there is a rail or wall preventing spectators from the track, the distance need only be 1.524 m (5 ft) of clearance. The safety area must be clearly demarcated all around the track.
Article 6 – Procedure
Detailed, step-by-step, guidelines for the recommended procedure to set up an official track may be found in the Appendix A of these Rules. These guidelines are provided to assist interpretation, the text in these rules acts as the definitive specification.
Diagram 1 – The Track
Diagram is provided to assist interpretation. The text acts as the definitive specification.
RULE TWO – TEAMS
Article 7 – Game Roster
At least twenty (20) minutes before the game is scheduled to begin, each team shall present
a list to the designated Officials with the names and corresponding numbers of team
members who are eligible to play in the game, as well as the names of the coaching staff
members who are eligible to participate in the game (the “Game Roster”).
Eligibility to be part of the game roster for a particular game – including age, gender and
minimum skills required – is defined according to the regulations of the organizing body
sanctioning the competition or, in its absence, the host team of the game.
The game roster shall consist of:
• A minimum of eight (8) and a maximum of fifteen (15) rostered players.
• A maximum of five (5) alternate players.
• A maximum of two (2) members of the coaching staff.
Substitutions between alternate players and rostered players may be submitted to the
designated Officials at any time between the submission of the game roster and the
equipment check of the game. Only rostered players who are cleared during the equipment
check may play in the game.
Article 8 – Special Designations
The game roster shall clearly indicate one (1) team captain (who must be a rostered player)
and one (1) designated alternate captain (who may be either a rostered player or a member
of the coaching staff). Team captains must have a visible letter ‘C’ displayed on their
uniform or arm. Alternate captains must have a visible letter ‘A’ displayed on their uniform
If the team captain is not able to participate in the game due to injury, expulsion or any
other reason, the team shall designate another rostered player as their new team captain.
If the alternate captain is not able to participate in the game due to injury, expulsion or any
other reason, the team shall designate a rostered player or a member of the coaching staff
as their new alternate captain.
Referees must allow the captains and/or alternate captains to have a short conversation
with them to clarify their decisions, as long as it is done respectfully and during a break or a
Article 9 – Safety Protocol
If the number of rostered players for a team is reduced to less than eight (8) players during
game play for any reason (such as injuries, foul outs, or expulsions), the Head Referee must
declare a forfeit in the interest of player safety.
Article 10 – Team Benches
Each team shall have a separate seating area easily accessible to the track (the Team
Bench). The team benches may be positioned in the infield or the sidelines of the track.
Only players and coaching staff members listed in the game roster may be present in the
team bench area during game play.
RULE THREE – PLAYERS
Article 11 – Blockers
Blockers are players whose position helps establish the Pack. They assist their Scorer in
navigating through the Pack in order to score points, while also working to hinder the
progress of the opposing Scorer. Non-Pivot Blockers must begin the jam within the
boundaries of the Blocker Area.
Article 12 – Pivots
Pivots are Blockers that have the potential to assume Scorer status. They must begin the jam
within the boundaries of the Pivot Area. When not acting as Scorer, pivots remain subject to
all the Blocker rules. Pivots shall wear a stripe designation on their helmet covers (see
Article 13 – Jammers
The primary objective of Jammers is to gain Scorer status and to score points for their team.
If the Pivot has assumed Scorer status in the jam, the Jammer is immediately treated as a
Blocker, replacing the Pivot in the Pack for the duration of the jam.
Jammers must begin the jam on or behind the Jammer Line, which is located 6.1 m (20 ft)
behind the Pivot Line. Jammers may be moving at the jam start whistle, but may not be
accelerating (increasing velocity sufficient to render an advantage at the start). Jammers
shall wear a star designation on both sides of their helmet covers (see Article 18).
Article 14 – Scorers
Jammers who “emerge” from the Pack shall be declared the Scorer for their team, provided
the team does not already have a Scorer. Emerging from the Pack is defined as legally
passing all opposing Blockers in the Pack and moving 3 m (10 ft) ahead of the foremost
Blocker in the Pack during the initial pass. Once a Scorer has been declared for a team, all
other team members shall be subject to all the Blocker rules for the remainder of the Jam
and may not be declared Scorer.
Once the Jammer of the opposing team has been declared Scorer, pivots may legally break
from the Pack during their Jammer’s initial pass and may be declared the Scorer for their
team. The Pivot must be in the Pack at the time the opposing Jammer is declared Scorer, or
must return to the Pack before pursuing Scorer Status. Jammers do not have to be on the
track in order for their Pivot to be declared the Scorer.
Article 15 – Limits
A maximum of four (4) Blockers and a maximum of one (1) Jammer from each team are
allowed on the track during a jam. One (1) Blocker from each team may be designated to be
the Pivot. Each team may only have one (1) Scorer during a Jam. Blockers may not become
Jammers or Pivots during a jam.
Article 16 – Communication
Players may communicate directly with Officials to confirm an Official’s communication to
that player or in the case of an emergency. Any other communication by players or coaches
directed to Officials shall be through the Captain and/or Alternate (see Article 8).
If a player refuses to comply with the instructions of an Official after repeated attempts,
the player shall receive an Insubordination penalty. If the player continues to ignore the
instructions of the Officials after the penalty is received, the player shall be given an
RULE FOUR – EQUIPMENT
Article 17 – Uniforms
- The two teams shall wear colors that clearly distinguish them from each other and also from the Referees.
- All players shall wear a uniform which clearly identifies them as members of their team. c. All uniforms shall be in good condition and shall not pose a hazard to the player wearing it or to other players.
- All numbers and patches shall be securely attached to the uniform. Safety pins or other sharp objects are not allowed.
- Each player shall have a highly visible and easily readable number on the back of their jersey at least 10 cm (4 in) tall. The body of the number shall use either a highly contrasting color or have a wide border of a contrasting color in relation with the color of the jersey.
- The number of a player shall also appear on their sleeve or upper arm, a minimum of 5cm (2 in) to a maximum of 10 cm (4 in) in height; handwritten numbers on the upper arm are acceptable.
- Any text, advertising or logo shall be at least 5 cm (2 in) away from the numbers. h. The number of a player may only use numerical characters (0-9) and may be up to two (2) digits long. The character zero (0) may not be the first number in a two-character number but may be used as a single-character number.
- Players on the same team may not have identical numbers during a game.
Article 18 – Helmet Covers
- Jammers must wear a helmet cover featuring one highly visible star on each side of the helmet, measuring a minimum of 10.16 cm (4 in) across from point to point. b. Pivots must wear a helmet cover featuring a single, highly visible stripe, a minimum of 5.08 cm (2 in) wide, running from front center to rear center.
- The stars and the stripes on all helmet covers shall use a highly-contrasting color in relation to the base color of the helmet cover.
- The helmet cover of the Jammer on a team shall match the color combination of the helmet cover of the Pivot on such team.
- The color combination used on the helmet covers of a team shall be used for the entire duration of the game unless the Head Referee considers that such color combination is confusing or difficult to identify and instructs the team to use a secondary set of helmet covers with a different color combination.
- Helmet covers must be on the helmet of the designated players at the beginning the jam. Jammers and Pivots who are not wearing the appropriate helmet cover at the start of the jam shall be excluded from that jam. See Article 38.
- Helmet covers must be worn at all times during the jam. Accidental removal of the helmet cover renders the player ineligible to score until the helmet cover has been restored.
- If a player intentionally removes or grabs the helmet cover of an opposing jammer or pivot who has not achieved Scorer status or removes their own helmet cover, the Head Referee shall end the jam, issue a Misconduct penalty to the offending player and start a new jam.
- If a player intentionally removes or grabs the helmet cover of an opposing Scorer, the Head Referee shall issue an expulsion to the offending player. The jam will continue and the Scorer will be allowed to score for the remaining of the jam without a helmet cover.
- Players may touch the helmet covers of their own teammates while trying to restore them.
Article 19 – Jewelry
Jewelry may be worn during a game unless it is considered by the Referees to pose a hazard to the player wearing it or to other players, in which case the hazardous jewelry shall be taped or removed at the Referee’s instruction.
Article 20 – Skates
Players shall wear quad roller skates with a single toe stop or a toe plug in the front. Quad roller skates without a toe stop mount may also be used as long as the plate does not contain any part that may damage the skating surface. Other types of skates are not permitted for players.
Article 21 – Mandatory Equipment
All players shall wear helmets, wrist guards, elbow pads, knee pads and mouth guards while participating in a jam, including while skating to and from the penalty box and the bench area. Players may remove their mouth guards while on the penalty box and during breaks or timeouts.
All mandatory equipment, except for mouth guards, must have a hard shell or protective insert and proper padding.
Article 22 – Optional Equipment
All equipment used by players must be appropriate for the game. Any equipment that is designed to give an unfair advantage is not permitted. The following equipment is permitted:
- Gear that does not impair or interfere with the safety or the ability to play of others.
- Compression sleeves of the same dominant color as the jerseys.
- Compression stockings of the same dominant color as the shorts.
- Protector for an injured nose, even if made of a hard material.
- Spectacles, if they do not pose a danger to other players.
- Clear full- or half-face shields affixed to the helmet and designed for the type of helmet worn.
Article 23 – Equipment Compliance
Players must not use any equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to themselves or to another player according to the Referees. It is the duty of the Referees to perform a visual equipment check prior to the start of the game to ensure that all players are in compliance with all equipment requirements. If necessary, a Referee may perform a physical inspection of the equipment to ensure its safety and legality.
Any player not complying with equipment requirements prior to the game shall not be permitted to participate until all the requirements are met to the satisfaction of the Referees.
Whenever it is deemed by a Referee that a player is wearing equipment that does not meet the legal requirements during a game, the Referee shall instruct the player to promptly change, add or remove the piece of equipment. Refusal to promptly make the necessary change, as indicated by the Referee, shall result in an Illegal Procedure penalty assessed to the player. If the player returns to the track without making the necessary change, an Insubordination penalty shall be issued to the player. If this happens a third time, the player shall be expelled from the game.
RULE FIVE – GAME STRUCTURE
Article 24 – Game
Games shall consist of sixty (60) minutes of play time, which shall be divided into two (2) thirty (30) -minute periods, unless otherwise announced by the organizing body of the competition or mutually agreed between the two teams.
Article 25 – Jams
Games are divided into short play intervals called jams. Each jam begins with one (1) short whistle blast (the jam-starting whistle) and may last up to ninety (90) seconds. The end of the jam shall be signaled either when the jam clock expires or when the Lead Scorer ends the jam. The end of the jam is signaled by four (4) short whistle blasts (the jam-ending signal), and the jam officially ends on the fourth whistle blast of this signal. Jams may only start if the period clock has thirty seconds (0:30) or more remaining, or if the jam immediately follows a Team Timeout, an Official Review or a False Start Reset.
Article 26 – Jam Break
There shall be a break between jams that will last thirty (30) seconds. The period clock shall not be stopped during a jam break. If for any reason the jam break exceeds the allowed thirty (30) seconds, the period clock shall be stopped immediately and resumed once the jam starts.
Article 27 – Periods
Each period shall begin when the designated Official blows the first jam-starting whistle. The period ends when the period clock reaches zero (0:00) during a Jam Break or when the last jam ends, and may therefore extend past the time when the period clock reaches zero (0:00).
Article 28 – Period Break
A break lasting at least ten (10) minutes shall take place between periods. The host team or event organizer will determine the exact break time and if teams shall switch benches at halftime, in accordance with these provisions, unless otherwise announced by the organizing body of the competition or mutually agreed between the two teams.
Article 29 – Team Timeouts
Each team is allowed three (3) ninety (90) second timeouts per game. To initiate a team timeout, the captain or alternate captain will signal the Referees with a “T” hand signal. Only one (1) team timeout may be taken by each team during any single jam break. The period clock will be paused during team timeouts and shall resume when the new jam starts. At the conclusion of the team timeout, the next jam shall promptly begin.
Article 30 – Official Reviews
Teams may request the review of a particular call made by an Official during the preceding jam or jam break through an official review. Teams must have at least one (1) available timeout in order to request an official review. To initiate an official review, the captain or alternate captain will signal the Referees with an “O” hand signal during a jam break or immediately after the end of a period. The period clock shall be paused during the official review for a minimum of ninety (90) seconds.
After the review is initiated, the captain and/or the alternate captain from the requesting team shall conference with the Head Referee to explain the request. The captain and/or the alternate captain from the other team may also participate in the conference if they so desire or if the Head Referee requires their presence.
The Head Referee may separately conference with other Officials to investigate the grievance and determine merit.
The Head Referee shall announce a final decision based on the review and may make the proper adjustments based on such decision. If the call in question is upheld or the points challenged remain unchanged, the requesting team will lose one (1) team timeout. If the challenge results in a call being overturned or in points being altered due to the review, the requesting team will retain the same number of team timeouts as before the Official Review was requested. At the conclusion of the Official Review, the next jam shall promptly begin. The period clock shall resume when the new jam starts.
Article 31 – Official Timeouts
Referees may call an Official Timeout at any time during the game. If the Official Timeout is called when the jam is in progress, the Referees shall signal the end of the jam with four (4) short whistle blasts. If during an Official Timeout the determination is made that a call was made in error or that points were incorrectly assessed, the call may be withdrawn or changed and the point allocation for the last jam may be adjusted as deemed appropriate by the Head Referee. The period clock will be paused during Official Timeouts and shall resume when the new jam starts, or at the conclusion of the Official Timeout if a new jam cannot be started (see Article 25).
Article 32 – Video Reviews
If a video review system is available during a game, the Head Referee may initiate a video review under the following conditions:
- It must be initiated by the Head Referee as part of an Official Timeout or Official Review.
- Its outcome must have a significant impact on the game.
- It may not be requested by a team, coach or player.
- It may only be used to review the preceding jam or jam break.
Situations where a video review may have significant impact include:
- Expulsions, in all cases when the expulsion is the result of a blocking penalty. • Mistaken Identity, if the person charged with a penalty cannot be clearly identified. • Scoring, if the decision may clearly change the final outcome of the game.
The Head Referee shall review the video and may invite other officials to assist them in making a decision. Only officials invited to the review may approach the video review area. Players and coaches shall not approach the video review area.
The Head Referee shall announce a final decision based on the review and may make the proper adjustments based on such decision.
Article 33 – Penalty Time
A player receiving a penalty will serve thirty (30) seconds in the Penalty Box. Players may ask the Penalty Timer about the length of time remaining in their penalty. Penalty clocks shall be paused during jam breaks and during timeouts.
Article 34 – Overtime Play
If the score is tied at the conclusion of a game, there will be a five (5) minute break, after which the teams will play a five (5) minute Overtime Period, observing all rules of regular play. Each team will receive one (1) additional timeout for the Overtime Period. An Overtime Period is an extension of the previous period; all penalties carry over. If the score remains tied at the end of the Overtime Period, the teams will play a jam (the Post Overtime Jam), observing all rules of regular play. If the score remains tied, subsequent Post-Overtime Jams will be played. Post-Overtime Jams are extensions of the previous term, all penalties carry over.
Article 35 – Official Clocks
Each game will have separate penalty clocks, jam clocks, and period clocks. The period and jam clocks must be visible from the track, Team Benches, and the penalty box area. There must be enough penalty clocks to time all penalties separately.
Article 36 – Pausing the Game Due to Injury
If a player suffers an injury or illness that renders that player unable to continue playing and unable to immediately exit the track (“Disabled Player”), an Official Timeout shall be called and the player shall be assisted as reasonably necessary to safely exit the track. Thereafter, game play will resume and the Disabled Player must refrain from game play for a minimum of ten (10) minutes. Disabled players shall be replaced in the ensuing Jam unless they received a penalty at the time they became disabled, in which case the penalty will be served by another team member, to be designated by the Captain. The penalty will be assigned to the Disabled Player only.
If an Official is injured or cannot continue to perform their duties within five (5) minutes of the incident, the game shall be resumed with the remaining Official(s), unless there is the possibility of replacing the injured Official with a qualified alternate Official approved by the Head Referee.
RULE SIX – PLAYING THE GAME
Article 37 – Upright Skating Position
Players are said to be in the upright skating position if they are on one skate or two, with no other body parts or equipment components touching the floor.
Article 38 – Participating in the Jam
At the start of each jam, Pivots must be within the Pivot Area, Blockers must be within the Blocker Area, and Jammers must be on or behind the Jammer Line. The Jam shall include only those rostered players who are on the track in an Upright Skating Position (except that Jammers and Pivots may start the jam with one hand down on the floor) and otherwise in compliance with starting position, equipment and uniform requirements at the jam start whistle (“Included Players”). All other players will be excluded from the jam at the jam start whistle and will be waved off the track by a Referee (“Excluded Players”).
Players may not impede an opponent from being in-bounds or in their designated starting areas prior to the start of the jam in such a way that the opponent is forced to be out of compliance at the jam-starting whistle. In such a case, the player will receive a penalty and the opponent will still be considered an Included Player.
If a team does not have at least two (2) included players during a jam, an Official Timeout shall be called immediately and a team penalty shall be assessed to the offending team.
Article 39 – Direction of Play
During a jam, players may only skate in a counterclockwise direction; clockwise movement is not permitted at any time. Players may skate facing any direction as long as they observe the counterclockwise direction of play.
Article 40 – Continuous Motion
Included players must continuously skate in the Direction of Play. Stopping on the track during a jam is not permitted unless otherwise specified below. Stepping (lifting and lowering the skates without moving) is not allowed at any time.
During a jam, players may only come to a complete stop when they are: a. Out-of-bounds, or
- Waiting while out-of-play and ahead of the most forward blocker in the Pack.
- During a jam, players may momentarily stop on the track while:
- Changing skating direction, or
- Recovering from a block or fall, or
- Avoiding collision or unwanted contact with another player
Article 41 – False Starts
If a Jammer (including equipment or uniform) touches the track beyond the Jammer Line at the start of the jam, a false start shall be called. During a false start the jam shall immediately be stopped, the period clock shall immediately stop, and the false-starting Jammer shall start the jam 3.04 m (10 ft) behind the Jammer Line. If a Jammer false starts a second time before a legal jam start, they shall start the new jam 6.09 m (20 ft) behind the Jammer Line. A third false start before a legal jam start will result in a penalty to the offending Jammer. Following a false start, players will immediately reset and game play will resume promptly; there will not be a Jam Break.
Article 42 – Relative Player Position
The relative position of a player is determined by reference to the center or mid-point of each player’s hips. Players pass another player when the mid-point of their hips has moved in a forward and counterclockwise direction beyond the mid-point of the opposing player’s hips. If such pass occurs in-bounds and without the passing player committing any penalties, then it is defined as a “Clean Pass”.
Article 43 – Pack Definition
The Pack shall be the largest group of Blockers comprising players from both teams in proximity to one another, excluding Scorers. “Proximity” is maintaining a Relative Player Position not more than 3 m (10 ft) apart. A single player cannot be the Pack. A Blocker need not be in the Upright Skating Position or in-bounds in order to be part of the Pack.
When two (2) or more groups of Blockers exclusively comprise players from the same team, the Pack is the group comprising all Blockers on a team and positioned most forward on the track.
When two (2) or more groups of Blockers comprise an equal number of players, the Pack is the largest group with Blockers from both teams and most forward on the track.
Article 44 – Out-of-Play
Blockers who are not part of the Pack are considered out-of-play and may not block nor assist. An out-of-play Blocker who re-enters the rear of the Pack after lapping the Pack, will be subject to a penalty.
If a team, comprising the Pack, laps part or all of the opposing team, then the opposing team’s Blockers will return to in-play status as soon as they are within proximity to the Pack, except that the lapped team will receive a team penalty, which will be served by the first Blocker to re-enter the front of the Pack. Only one (1) team penalty will be issued each time a team is lapped.
Article 45 – In-Bounds and Out-of-Bounds
Players are considered in-bounds during a jam when their body, equipment and uniform are not in contact with the floor beyond the track boundaries. Any other position places a player out-of-bounds. The boundary markers are considered in-bounds.
If a player jumps and ceases all contact with the ground, the player’s prior bounds status is maintained until contact with the ground is resumed.
Players may not skate out-of-bounds in an attempt to avoid a block.
Article 46 – Skating across the Infield
Skating out-of-bounds across the infield in order to shorten the distance a player must travel around the track is considered a foul and shall be assessed based on its severity and the advantage that it provides to the infractor.
If a scorer or an out-of-play blocker briefly cuts the track with a single skate out-of-bounds and re-enters without advancing their relative position, the player shall receive an infield violation warning from a Referee. If the same player repeats the action a second time during the same jam, the Referee shall issue a Skating Out-of-Bounds penalty.
Players who cut the track with both skates out-of-bounds and re-enter without advancing their relative position shall receive a Skating Out-of-Bounds penalty unless the cutting was caused by a block from a member of the opposing team.
Article 47 – Returning to the Track
Players re-entering the track must not advance their relative position against any player who has remained in-bounds, in the Pack and in the Upright Skating Position, otherwise they will receive a verbal warning and hand signal from a Referee indicating that the player must exit
the track and yield position to all players in the Pack before re-entering the track (Cutting Warning).
Additionally, Scorers re-entering the track while not in the Pack who advance their relative position against the opposing Scorer who has remained in-bounds and in the Upright Skating position will receive the same warning and hand signal from a Referee indicating that the player must exit the track and yield position to the opposing Scorer before re-entering the track.
If the player does not comply with the warning after repeated attempts, the Referee may issue a Cutting penalty.
Players may not accelerate or pick up momentum for a block until in-bounds. A player in bounds need not yield to an out-of-bounds player, but may not actively block the out-of bounds player’s re-entry to the track.
Article 48 – Behavior
All members of the game roster are expected to act in a manner that displays good sporting behavior. Any action, collective or individual, that undermines the expected level of respect for one another, for the spectators, for the rules and regulations, for fair play or for the sport shall not be allowed.
Members of the game roster are responsible for their conduct at all times and must endeavor to prevent unsporting behavior or disorderly conduct before, during or after the game, on or off the track and any place in the venue. The Referees may assess penalties to any member of the game roster for failure to do so, and the Head Referee may issue an expulsion depending of the degree of impropriety of the action.
RULE SEVEN – SCORING
Article 49 – Scoring Pass
Scorers (see Article 14) complete a scoring pass once they have passed the foremost Blocker in the Pack. The initial pass of a player designated as Scorer is not considered a scoring pass and no points shall be awarded.
Article 50 – Points
Scorers receive one (1) point for each Clean Pass (see Article 42) of an opposing Included Player, whether or not the opponent is out-of-bounds. Scorers will additionally accrue points for Excluded Players and opponents in the penalty box, which will be awarded at the time when the Scorer receives the first point of each scoring pass. No additional points will be awarded for dropping back and re-passing Pack members. Scorers will receive one (1) point each time they fully lap the opposing Scorer (or Jammer, if Scorer has not yet been declared). Scorers will also receive one (1) point per scoring pass for each opposing Blocker who:
- Returns from the penalty box behind the Scorer, or
- Is out-of-play when the Scorer emerges from the Pack, if not already scored upon, or
- Is out-of-play when the Jam ends, if not already scored upon, and if the Scorer has already scored a point.
Article 51 – Determining Lead Scorer
The first Jammer to be declared Scorer shall also be declared Lead Scorer with two (2) short, rapid whistle blasts and the appropriate hand signal by the designated Scorer Referee. Scorers may alternate Lead status with each Clean Pass completed against the then-current Lead Scorer as long as they are both on the same pass. For the purposes of this rule, two Scorers are considered to be on the same pass when one has not lapped the other, or when a scorer is exiting the penalty box after serving a penalty.
Article 52 – Ending the Jam
Lead scorers may end the Jam by placing and removing their hands from their hips in rapid succession. After the second hand-to-hip motion, Referees shall signal the end of the jam with four (4) short whistle blasts. Once the jam ending signal has begun, Lead Status may not change. In order to legally end the jam, a player must:
- Be the Lead Scorer, and
- Be in the Upright Skating Position, and
- Be in-bounds, and
- Have passed at least one (1) opposing Blocker during a scoring pass, whether the blocker is in-bounds or out-of-bounds.
A Scorer who effectively ends the Jam when the above requirements are not met will receive a penalty.
RULE EIGHT – BLOCKING
Article 53 – Definition
Blocking is any movement or physical contact by a player (the Initiating Player) made to modify the speed, position or trajectory of an opposing player (the Receiving Player). Such movement or physical contact is considered a block whether it happened intentionally or accidentally. The Initiating Player is always responsible for the legality of the block.
Article 54 – Blocking Requirements
Players may initiate a block at any time during the jam. A block is limited to legal contact zones and, except as set forth herein, must be delivered while both the Initiating and the Receiving Players are:
- Skating in the Direction of Play, and
- In-bounds, and
- In the Pack, and
- In the Upright Skating Position.
Players recovering from a block or a fall must meet all these requirements and must also have their head above their hips before any additional blocking may be initiated against them.
Article 55 – Positional Blocking
This type of blocking occurs when players position themselves in front of an opposing player to impede movement on the track. Positional blocking does not require contact and is allowed given all the requirements above are met.
Article 56 – Counter-blocking
This type of blocking includes any motion or movement towards an oncoming block by the Receiving Player which is designed to counteract the opponent’s block. Counter-blocking should be considered a separate block where the Receiving Player of the original block is
considered as the Initiating Player of the counter-block and, by definition, is responsible for its legality.
Counter-blocking is the only type of blocking allowed while out of the Pack but only when all the other blocking requirements are met.
Article 57 – Scorer Blocking
Scorers may initiate blocks against one another anywhere on the track, but may only initiate a block against an opposing Blocker while in the Pack.
Article 58 – Multiplayer Blocking
Players may not form a physical link (including uniforms or equipment) that prevents an opposing player from passing between them. This link must be physically challenged by an opponent for the action to be illegal. In that case, the player who first creates the link shall receive a penalty.
Article 59 – Blocking Stops at Track Boundary
If an Initiating Player forces a Receiving Player out-of-bounds while blocking, the Initiating Player must immediately cease blocking once the Receiving Player makes contact with any surface beyond the track boundary.
Article 60 – Contact Zones
Contact between the Initiating Player and the Receiving Player during a block is limited to legal contact zones. Legal target zones are the specific areas of the Receiving Player with which the Initiating Player may have contact during a block. These include all areas above
the knees and below the neck, except the back of the torso, back of the thighs and buttocks.
Legal blocking zones are the specific areas of the Initiating Player that may be utilized to execute a block. They include the torso, hips, buttocks and thighs. The Initiating Player may also utilize the upper arm from the shoulder to above the elbow, provided the upper arm is parallel to the torso.
Diagram 2 – Legal Target Zones
Diagram 3 – Legal Blocking Zones
RULE NINE – PENALTIES
Article 61 – Fouls and Penalties
Fouls are infractions to the rules, including all actions or movements not explicitly allowed or explicitly prohibited by these Rules.
Penalties may be issued by the Referees as a result of a foul, but not all fouls ultimately result in a penalty being issued. Depending on whether the foul being observed is a blocking or a procedural foul, the Referees shall use the appropriate criteria to determine if a penalty should be issued.
Article 62 – Scope
Penalties are assigned to the individual players who committed the foul, not to their position. Jammers and Pivots serving a penalty or on their way to the penalty box at the conclusion of a jam must remove their helmet covers before the next jam and serve the remainder of their penalty time during the next jam as Blockers. Each team may field a new Jammer and Pivot at the start of the next jam.
Referees shall assess a penalty to a player by using one long whistle blow accompanied by the appropriate hand signal describing the penalty (Appendix B). They shall follow the call with a verbal announcement indicating the team color, the player number and the penalty assessed loudly enough for players and other Officials to hear.
Article 63 – Blocking Fouls
These include all actions or movements not explicitly allowed or explicitly prohibited by these Rules that are committed during game play as part of a block and that impact or affect the movement or position of players on the track.
Referees may issue penalties for blocking fouls according to the impact they have on the game:
- No impact, no penalty. If the blocking foul causes an opposing player to momentarily lose balance or change direction but it does not affect the Relative Player Position of any player, including the infractor, then the action is not considered to have an impact in the game and it does not require a penalty.
- Blocking Penalty. If the blocking foul causes an opposing player to lose Relative Player Position, fall down, or go out of bounds, or if it allows the infractor to improve or intentionally alter her/his own position, the infractor should receive a thirty (30) second penalty.
Article 64 – Blocking Penalties
The following penalties may be assigned to a player or team based on impact as a result of a blocking foul:
- Back Blocking (B)
- Elbows (E)
- Hands/Forearms (F)
- High Blocking (H)
- Low Blocking (T)
- Multiplayer Blocking (M)
- Out-of-Bounds Blocking (O)
- Out-of-Play Blocking (P)
Table 1 – Blocking Penalties Reference
Penalty Articles infracted
Back Blocking (B)
Initiating a block to the back of the torso, the buttocks or the back of the thighs of an opposing player.
60 – Contact Zones
Initiating a block using the elbows when the upper arm is not parallel to the torso.
60 – Contact Zones
In addition to general blocking requirements, using the hands to grab and hold an opponent in such a way that their movement will be restricted.
High Blocking (H)
Initiating a block using any part of the body above the shoulders or to any part of the body above the shoulders of an opposing player.
60 – Contact Zones
Low Blocking (L)
Initiating a block using any part of the body below the thighs or to any part of the body below the thighs of an opposing player. Initiating a block on a fallen player.
54 – Blocking Requirements
Multiplayer Blocking (M)
Multiple players initiating a block on an opposing player while being linked together.
58 – Multiplayer Blocking
Out-of-Bounds Blocking (O)
Initiating a block while out-of-bounds.
54 – Blocking Requirements
Initiating a block on an opposing player who is out-of bounds or impeding their ability to re-enter the track.
59 – Blocking Stops at Track Boundary
Impeding an opponent from returning to the track.
47 – Returning to the Track
Out-of-Play Blocking (P)
Blockers initiating a block while not in the Pack.
54 – Blocking Requirements Scorers
initiating a block on an opposing blocker while not in the Pack.
57 – Scorer Blocking
Article 65 – Procedural Fouls
These include all actions or movements not explicitly allowed or explicitly prohibited by rules other than blocking rules, that may not directly or immediately impact the movement or position of players on the track, but nonetheless represent a departure from the rules of play and may present a strategic advantage or a safety impact to the game. Failure to adhere to the procedural requirements of game play will result in a penalty to the infractor(s) or, where appropriate, a penalty to the team captain. Penalizing procedural fouls is at the discretion of the Referee making the call.
Article 66 – Procedural Penalties
The following penalties may be assigned to a player or team as a result of a procedural foul: a. Illegal Procedure (I)
- Direction of Game Play (D)
- Misconduct (G)
- Insubordination (N)
- Cutting (X)
- Skating Out-of-Bounds (S)
- Out-of-Play (P)
Table 2 – Procedural Penalties Reference
Penalty Articles infracted
Illegal Procedure (I)
Non-authorized people present in team benches.
10 – Team Benches
Unauthorized communication by players or coaches other than the Captain or Alternate.
16 – Communication
Refusal to wear the appropriate equipment.
23 – Equipment Compliance
Impeding an opponent from being in position at the start of a jam.
38 – Participating in the Jam
Scorers false-starting three times before a legal start.
41 – False Starts
Scorers effectively ending the jam when not meeting the requirements.
52 – Ending the Jam
Pivot or jammer did not remove helmet cover at the conclusion of the jam while serving a penalty
62 - Scope
Entering or exiting the penalty box without following the proper procedures.
74 – Entering and Exiting
Delay of Game
74 – Entering and Exiting
Direction of Play (D)
Skating in the clockwise direction during a jam.
39 – Direction of Play
Illegally stopping or stepping during a jam.
40 – Continuous Motion
Intentionally removing an opponent’s helmet cover during a jam
18 – Helmet Covers
48 – Behavior
Blocking with both feet off the ground
54 – Blocking Requirements
Blocking before the jam starts or after the jam ends
54 – Blocking Requirements
Failure to observe the ruling or instructions of an Official
16 – Communication
Failure to wear proper equipment
23 – Equipment Compliance
Failure to yield after a cutting warning
47 – Returning to the Track Illegally rejoining the Pack after coming out of the penalty box.
74 – Entering and Exiting
Skating Out-of-Bounds (S)
Skating out-of-bounds to avoid a block
45 – In- and Out-of-Bounds
Repeatedly shortening the length of the track with one skate out-of-bounds.
46 – Skating across the Infield
Shortening the length of the track with both skates out-of-bounds.
46 – Skating across the Infield
Lapping the Pack while out-of-play
44 – Out-of-Play
Team Lapped by the Pack
44 – Out-of-Play
Assisting while out-of-play
44 – Out-of-Play
Article 67 – Team Penalty
If a penalty is assessed to a team, the captain will serve the penalty time imposed. If the Captain has left the game for any reason, the team must designate a player to serve the penalty. The penalty shall be recorded on the player who serves.
A team successfully requesting a team timeout when they have none remaining will receive a team penalty.
If during a penalty the offending player cannot be clearly identified, but it is nonetheless clear which team is responsible for the offense, a penalty may be imposed upon the team.
Article 68 – Head Referee Discretion
The Head Referee has discretion to call a penalty for any action not explicitly allowed by these Rules, if such action provides an unfair advantage to one team or impacts player safety. This discretion does not allow Referees to change these Rules.
Article 69 – Fouling Out
A player who receives seven (7) penalties in a single game will be declared ineligible to play the remainder of that game and may not be present within the boundaries of the track (including the safety zone), the penalty box areas or the team bench areas. Fouled-out players shall serve their last penalty before leaving the track and their team shall play without them for the remaining of their last jam. If a jam ends with a fouled-out player still in the penalty box or if a fouled-out player fails to serve their last penalty, their team must designate a substitute player before the start of the following jam to serve the remaining penalty time of the fouled-out player. In that case, the penalty shall not be recorded for the substitute player.
Article 70 – Expulsion
An expulsion is the immediate removal of a member of the game roster from the game due to a serious violation to the rules. Only the Head Referee may issue an Expulsion.
A player who receives an expulsion will be declared ineligible to play the remainder of that game and may not be present anywhere within sight of the track.
A member of the coaching staff who receives an expulsion may not be present anywhere within sight of the track and may not continue to direct or communicate with the team in any way.
If the person who received the expulsion refuses to comply with these rules, the Head Referee may end the game and declare a forfeit against the team of the ejected person.
Table 3 – Expulsion Reference
Action Articles Infracted
Refusal to comply with the instructions of an Official after the player received an Insubordination penalty.
16 – Communication
48 – Behavior
Interfering with the game after fouling out.
69 – Fouling out
Table 3 – Expulsion Reference
Refusal to comply with the instructions of an Official after the player received an Insubordination penalty.
16 – Communication
48 – Behavior
Interfering with the game after fouling out.
69 – Fouling out
RULE TEN – PENALTY BOX
Article 71 – Location
The penalty box is the area where players shall serve their penalty time. It must be located close to the track, in an area that is easily accessible to both teams. The penalty box may be adjacent to the safety area, but must be at least 1m (3ft) away from the team benches.
Article 72 – Boundaries
The penalty box shall be clearly delimited on all sides providing at least 1m (3ft) of clearance in front and behind the seats. The boundaries of the penalty box shall be marked in a way that makes them safe and highly visible to Players and Officials, and shall be made in a color different than the color of the track boundaries and which significantly contrasts with the color of the track surface.
Additional lines that extend the lateral boundaries of the penalty box may be added on the safety area to clearly indicate the position of the penalty box area.
Article 73 -Seating
Six (6) seats shall be provided for the penalty box, with three (3) seats clearly designated for each team separated by at least 0.3m (1ft) from the other team’s seats. The seats shall not be marked by position.
Players must be seated in the penalty box in order to serve a penalty, except for the last ten (10) seconds of their time, during which they may stand in front of their seat but without exiting the boundaries of the penalty box. The seat does not become available until the player has completed the full length of the penalty time.
Article 74 – Entering and Exiting
Players are not allowed to enter the penalty box unless they have been penalized. Members of the coaching staff are not allowed to ever enter the penalty box.
Penalized players must proceed immediately to the penalty box, skating in the Direction of Play outside the track to enter the penalty box. Penalized players are considered “in the box” for Scorer, Lead Scorer, and out-of-bounds rule purposes as soon as they are directed off the track after a penalty is called. However, the penalty clock will not start until they are seated in the box.
A team captain or designated alternate captain may request a team timeout while in the penalty box and may temporarily leave the penalty box during a team or official timeout to talk to the Head Referee. All other players may not leave the penalty box during any timeout. Penalized players may leave the penalty box during a period break.
When there are ten (10) seconds remaining on the penalty clock of a penalized player, the player will be notified and may stand up in front her/his seat, but shall not exit the penalty box until instructed to do so by the penalty timer. Once instructed to leave the penalty box, the penalized player must exit the boundaries of the penalty box and may wait beside the penalty box for an opportune time to re-enter the track.
Re-entering the track after serving a penalty must be done from the penalty box area or right beside it. Players may not skate around outside the track and away from the penalty box before re-entering.
After re-entering the track from the penalty box, players must rejoin the Pack from the rear. Penalized players who are incorrectly dismissed from the Penalty Box by an Official shall return to the box and serve their remaining time.
Article 75 – Penalty Box Capacity
Each team may have a maximum of three (3) players seated in the penalty box simultaneously. If there are already three (3) players from a team in the penalty box and another player from that team is penalized, the player will stand beside the penalty box until a seat is available; the player will then sit in the available seat and will begin serving their penalty time. When their penalty time ends, players must exit the penalty box and the seat they occupied will become available.
Article 76 – Lone Blocker Penalized
If there is only one (1) Blocker from a given team on the track (the “Lone Blocker”), that Blocker will not be sent to the penalty box, even if the penalty box maximum capacity has not been reached, until another Blocker from the same team returns to the track and has joined the Pack. The penalized Lone Blocker will proceed to the box as soon as there is room in the box, provided another Blocker from their team is on the track and has joined the Pack.
Article 77 – Jammer/Pivot Penalty
Jammers and Pivots serving a penalty at the conclusion of a jam will remove their helmet covers and will serve the remainder of their time during the next jam as Blockers. Each team may field a new Jammer and Pivot at the start of the next jam.
If both Scorers, or both Jammers who have not yet attained Scorer status, are seated in the penalty box at the same time, the Head Referee shall end the jam and begin a new one.
Article 78 – Lone Scorer Penalized
If both the Jammer and the Pivot of a team are excluded from participating in the jam and during the course of that jam the opposing team’s Jammer receives a penalty, the Head Referee shall immediately end the jam, and a new one will begin. The penalized Jammer must remove the helmet cover and serve the penalty time during the next jam as a Blocker. Both teams will be allowed to field a Jammer and a Pivot in the new jam.
RULE ELEVEN – OFFICIALS
Article 79 – Referees
Referees are Officials responsible for enforcing the rules of the game and for ensuring fair and safe game play. Referees are the only Officials who may call penalties during the game. Referees shall conduct the game in accordance with these rules and have no authority to change them.
A penalty shall not be called if a Referee sees the effects of an action but does not see the action itself or if the Referee is not sure whether an action warrants a penalty or not. If a Referee is in a position where intent must be inferred but is not clear, they must assume legal intent.
Games must have a minimum of three (3) and a maximum of eight (8) Referees, including one (1) Head Referee and two (2) Scorer Referees. Optional positions include one (1) Inside Pack Referee and a maximum of four (4) Outside Pack Referees.
Article 80 – Head Referee (HR)
The person designated as Head Referee is the ultimate authority in the interpretation and the application of the rules of the game. During game play, the Head Referee shall be positioned in the infield. Certain powers and responsibilities are given exclusively to the Head Referee, including:
- Oversee and assign the positions of all Officials during the game.
- Serve as the primary point of contact for coaches and captains during the game.
- Declare a forfeit when a team has less than the minimum number of players allowed.
- Declare a forfeit when the actions of a team prevent the game from being played according to these Rules.
- Call penalties and make decisions on any unfair or unsafe actions not explicitly covered by the Rules.
- Withdraw or change erroneous calls, including adjusting the point allocation for the last jam.
- End the jam when no players on the track are able to score.
- Issue an expulsion.
- Stop the game at any point if the conditions are deemed unsafe or inappropriate.
- Initiate a video review (see Article 32)
The following responsibilities of the Head Referee may be delegated to the Head NSO:
- Ensure that disabled players sit out the required time before returning to the game.
- Ensure that proper concussion protocols are followed.
- Monitor the behavior of players and coaches in the bench areas and penalty box area.
The Head Referee shall have the responsibility to skate alongside the Pack indicating its current position (“define the Pack”), but may delegate that responsibility to the Inside Pack Referee, if available.
Article 81 – Scorer Referees (SR)
One (1) Scorer Referee shall be assigned to each team to observe the Jammer and, once Active status is achieved, the Scorer of that team. In addition to their Referee powers and responsibilities, Scorer Referees are also responsible for counting the number of points awarded to their designated team.
Scorer Referees shall:
- Be identified by a wrist band, helmet band or solid helmet cover matching the uniform colors of the team to which they are assigned, and
- Be positioned in the infield
- Switch teams at half time, and Scores shall be signaled by the Scorer Referee after each scoring pass. The scorekeeper will mirror back the Scorer Referee’s hand signal to confirm the score. Any Referee can communicate scoring and/or penalty events to the Scorer Referees.
Article 82 – Inside Pack Referee (IPR)
One (1) Referee may be positioned in the infield alongside the back or the front of the Pack. The Inside Pack Referee closely monitors the blockers, and the scorers when they are within the pack, calling penalties and issuing cut warnings as necessary. In some cases, the Inside Pack Referee could be assigned to define the Pack.
Article 83 – Outside Pack Referees (OPR)
A maximum of four (4) Referees may be positioned on the perimeter of the track, skating within the Safety Area and constantly observing the Pack. Outside Pack Referees will be assigned portions of the track to cover depending on their position.
Article 84 – Non-skating Officials (NSOs)
These Officials are responsible for the smooth running of the game and for tracking several aspects of the competition, including the timing, the penalties, the scores and the lineups. Non-Skating Officials are not authorized to call penalties under any circumstances, but they may communicate with a Referee to inform them of a situation that might require a penalty.
Games must have a minimum of three (3) Non-Skating Officials, including one (1) Jam Timer, one (1) Score Tracker and one (1) Penalty Tracker. If a scoreboard system is used during the game, there must be one (1) Scoreboard Operator, increasing the minimum to four (4) Non Skating Officials. Optional positions include one (1) additional Score Tracker, up to four (4) additional Penalty Trackers and up to two (2) Lineup Trackers.
Article 85 – Head Non-Skating Official (HNSO)
One of the Officials must be designated as the Head NSO for each game. The Head NSO designation may be given to one of the NSOs assigned to a position. During official tournaments, the Head NSO shall not be assigned to a position, but shall be monitoring and assessing the performance of the NSO crew. The responsibilities assigned exclusively to the Head NSO include:
- Supervising and managing all the other NSOs before, during and after a game. b. Assigning the positions of the NSO crew depending on preference, ability and experience.
- Ensuring that all NSOs have sufficient knowledge and appropriate equipment to perform their duties.
- Preparing the game report documents before the game and distributing them to the appropriate individuals.
- Confirm that the numbers on the roster match those visible on the corresponding players.
- Collecting the appropriate signatures from the teams after the game. g. Following and completing the game reporting protocol of the organizing governing body of the game.
Article 86 – Jam Timer (JT)
The Jam Timer shall be positioned in the infield, near the pivot line, and shall be responsible for:
- Signaling the start of each jam. Five seconds prior to the jam start, the Jam Timer will signal the impending start of the jam with a hand raised overhead until it starts. b. Indicating the end of the jam if the clock reaches the maximum allowed length of the jam.
- Maintaining the official period clock, indicating the end of the period or game appropriately.
- Indicating when a timeout is happening and officially timing such timeout. e. Ensuring that the scoreboard accurately presents the correct period and game time, when available.
Article 87 – Score Trackers (ST)
A minimum of one (1) and a maximum of two (2) Score Trackers shall be available during a game. Score Trackers are responsible for receiving and recording the scores from the Scorer Referees and for tracking the official score of the game. Score Trackers are typically located in the vicinity of the track. If a scoreboard is used, the Score Trackers must be close to the Scoreboard Operator and must constantly inform her or him of the points earned by each team, making sure the score is presented accurately.
Score Trackers must record the points reported by the Scorer Referee and mirror the points back to her or him to confirm. When two Score Trackers are used, it is recommended that they wear a wristband that matches the color of their designated Scorer Referee wristband.
Article 88 – Penalty Trackers (PT)
A minimum of one (1) and a maximum of three (3) Penalty Trackers shall be positioned in the penalty box area, within the designated official sections. One (1) additional Penalty Tracker may be used in the infield to assist the Referees in communicating penalties to other Penalty Trackers. If a whiteboard or an electronic penalty system is used, an additional Penalty Tracker may be positioned in a convenient and visible area around the track or in the infield. The mandatory responsibilities of the Penalty Trackers include:
- Track the time for each penalized player in the penalty box.
- Track the number of penalties per player.
- Inform a Referee of any required penalties, such as having a player leaving the box early, not following the penalty box procedures, or entering the track by skating in the clockwise direction, to name a few.
- Inform players serving a penalty when there are 10 seconds remaining on their respective penalty so that the player can stand up and get ready to be released. After the 10 seconds have lapsed, the penalty keeper must instruct the penalized player to exit the penalty box.
- If the penalty box is full and another player is penalized, indicate to the last penalized player that they must stand beside the penalty box until a seat is available.
Optional responsibilities, depending on the number of available Officials, include: f. Record the appropriate penalty codes per penalty.
- Record the specific jams when each penalty occurs.
- Maintain a visible running total of player penalties.
As a player is directed to the penalty box, the penalizing Referee shall make sure that one of the Penalty Trackers knows the infraction and the corresponding penalty imposed.
Article 89 – Scoreboard Operator (SO)
The use of an electronic scoreboard system is recommended for games and mandatory for official tournaments. When available, the Scoreboard Operator must be adjacent to the Score Trackers and shall be responsible for:
- Updating the score on the scoreboard to reflect the points reported by the Scorer Referees after each pass.
- Verbally confirming the official game score with both Score Trackers at the end each jam.
- Updating the scoreboard to reflect the period and jam timers appropriately. d. Communicating with the other Officials to ensure that the information on the scoreboard is accurate.
- Using the features of the available scoreboard system to reflect the game situation as accurately as possible.
Article 90 – Lineup Trackers (LT)
Two (2) Officials may be assigned to track the numbers of the players who participate in each jam. These Officials may be positioned anywhere in the vicinity of the track, except for the infield.
Article 91 – Equipment
Referees may wear quad or inline skates, and shall wear helmets, wrist guards, elbow pads and knee pads. Non-Skating Officials shall not be on skates while performing their duties.
During official tournaments, Referees shall be uniformed wearing black bottoms and tops with black and white vertical stripes. Non-Skating Officials shall be uniformed wearing black or white bottoms and black tops during official tournaments.
Officials are not required to display any information in the back of their shirts. If a number is displayed in the back of an Official shirt, it must follow the same requirements as the numbers of a player (see Article 17).
Article 92 – Communication Standards
Officials shall utilize the official communication standards set forth in Appendix B, throughout the game, as necessary and appropriate.
Article 93 – Whistles
Referees must use a whistle that generates a reliable and consistent sound. Table 4 –Whistle Reference
One (1) short blast Jam-starting Whistle
Four (4) short blasts Jam-ending Signal
Two (2) short blasts Lead Scorer Whistle
One (1) long blow Penalty
Four (4) short blasts Timeout
One (1) long rolling blow Timeout Ended
One (1) long rolling blow Period/Game Ending